Both Upper and Lower Egypts had their own calendars. After unification, there developed a simplified civil calendar with twelve 30 day months, three seasons of four months each, plus an extra five days, giving a 365 year day but with no way of accounting for the extra quarter day each year.
Day and night were split into 24 units, each personified by a deity. A sundial with instructions shows that the daylight hours were at one time split into 10 units, with 12 hours for the night and an hour for the morning and evening twilights.
The excavated temple complexes astronomical alignments and the roofs of some of the buildings could have been used by observers to view the stars, calculate the hours at night and predict the sunrise for religious festivals. It is said that precision of the equinoxes was known in Egypt in ancient times itself.
The great pyramids built of brick or stone serve testimony to the Egyptian knowledge in architecture and construction. Egyptian monuments are among the largest constructions perceived in human history. The blocks of the pyramids are so heavy and big that tornadoes or even hurricanes cannot destroy them.
Pyramids of Giza and the great Sphinx are among world’s greatest figures. Simple ramps, sleds and levers are the most obvious method for large scale pyramid construction .Temples and statues also include Egyptian architectural layout.
The ancient Egyptians had some of the first monumental stone building. Obelisks were a prominent part of the architecture of the ancient Egyptians, who placed them in pairs at the entrances of temples. Imhotep, who was included in the Egyptian pantheon, was the first documented engineer.
The Edwin Smith papyrus, an ancient document, attempts to describe and analyse the brain. Practices such as applying cow dung to wounds, ear piercing, tattooing, and chronic ear infections were important factors in developing tetanus.
But Medicines such as lizard blood were ineffective, in addition to being harmful. However, many of the discoveries paved way for longer life expectancy of the people living in that particular locality.
Agriculture was the backbone of Egyptian economy. Through the use of ancient irrigation techniques and technology the Egyptians were able to level the field. The shaduf is a bucket, bag or basket at the end of a pole. It balances on a frame and has a heavy weight attached at the other end.
The word paper comes from the Egyptian word ‘Papyrus’. The first use of papyrus paper is believed to have been in 4000 BC. The Egyptian book of the dead’ was written in Papyrus. The people of Egypt developed one of the first decimal systems.
Some of advancements include new formulae found in the field of mathematics. The civilization is gifted with certain naturally talented mathematicians. The importance of the eminent black smith is always essential to obtain good quality weapons for the military.
The military bases are created all along the source of effective manpower and thereby rendering good supply of soldiers at the time of adversity and immediate cause.
Gold mining was another simple technology. Alluvial sands found on river beds were sifted through woolly fleece-lined bags held and shaken by two men. The earthy sand would pass through and gold was caught in the fleece.
The glass making knowledge of Egyptians was advanced. The glass beads were produced in a variety of colours. They were made by winding molten glass around a metal bar and were highly prized as a trading commodity.